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The happenings in India, when the King of Cochin was at war with the Zamorin of Calicut, are dealt with ; and we are told how Burhan Nizam Shah gave per- mission for the erection of a Fortress at Chaul, and of the continuation of the troubles with Adil Shah and the Moors. This Decada ends with a description of the work of one of the Governors Dom Henrique in India, till his death in the fortress of Cannanore.

Portuguese Literature (1922)

The taking of the city of Diu in the time of the Govern- or Nuno de Cunha is described. There is a historical description of the Moghuls, the causes which brought them to India and their relations with Bahadur Shah, of the reasons which made Bahadur Shah give up Diu to the Portuguese and how he repented his action.

It is also shown how the King of Calicut, seeing that the Portuguese at this time were harassed on alt sides, took advantage of this and attacked the Portuguese but was defeated. It mentions the details of a conspiracy of the King of Cambay to retake Diu, and contains a description of the Kingdom of Bengal, the customs of its people and its history. The Decada ends with the attempt made by Sulaiman, Emperor of the Turks, to overthrow the Portuguese in India, and tells us how his ships came to Diu, where Antonio de Silveira was in the fortress which was badly damaged and how the Portuguese suffered great loss, until the siege was raised and a treaty signed.

At this time Dom Garcia de Noronha arrived in India, where he insulted Nuno de Cunha who left for Portu- gal, dying on the way in The general style and subject matter may be judged from the following selection which incidentally is alsa an admirable specimen of his method and manner as a historian : — The King of Cannanore, when he saw Dom Jo 3 o de Nova return in such a few days with the ships which, as he said, were as loaded with victory as with spices, also wished to celebrate it at once and ended by giving him all the cargo which he wanted ; then in order to please him still more he sent to tell him that he should not mind that he had made little impression on the Zamorin ; for accord- ing to the news he had received, in that battle people had been killed, on account of which all Calicut was- plunged in mourning.

Joao de Nova, having been despatched from the coast of India with so many victories and the good luck which God had given him, proceeded on his way to Portugal ; and even during this journey another good fortune befell him beyond the Cape of Good Hope. For God showed him a very small island to which he gave the name of St. Leaving that place, Joao de Nova arrived at the Kingdom of Portugal on the nth.

E ainda para o mais contentar, mandou-lhe dizer que nao cuidasse que tinha feito pouco dano ao Samorim : pois segundo tinha nova, naquela peleja Ihe matara por conta quatrocentas e dezassete pessoas, por causa das quais todo Calecute era posto em pranto A qual ilha parece que a criou Deus naquele lugar para dar vida a quantos homens veem da India ; porque, depois que foi achada ate hoje, todos trabalham de a tomar, por terem a melhor aguada de toda esta carreira — ao menos a mais necessaria que se toma, quando veem da India.

E tanto, que as naus que ali veem ter se hao por salvas e navegadas pela necessidade que elas trazem, pelo muito refresco que nela acham, como diante veremos, dando razao de quern foi causa disso. For this reason, if for no other, they deserve to be registered with affection in the memory of all Portuguese. But the Asia of Barros is, apart from the purity and elegance of its lan- guage, an excellent repository of ethnographical information about India.

The deeds of the Portuguese had on the other hand, a true singer and apologist in Joao de Barros. S6 por isso mereciam elas ser registadas com amorna memdria de todos os portugueses. Mas a Asia de Barros d, aparte a pureza e lougania da linguagem, um repositorio excelente de noticias etnograficas da India. Os feitos dos portugueses tiveram, por outro lado, em Joao de Barros um verdadeiro cantor e apologista. He showed, long before Adam Smith, some familiarity with the subject and ex- pressed new ideas about the future of Asiatic commerce.

Portuguese Literature () | Portugal | Poetry

Many times they drink from the original sources, other times they have recourse to interpreters. They have a thirst for knowledge which is all the more admirable, when we realise how few were the materials on whicli they could lay their hands. I, IntroduQao. THE CLASSIC EPOCH 85 purpose; for having to treat of three things — the deeds of the Portuguese, information about the kings and nations of the Orient, and the true geographical situa- tion of their provinces, — all the papers which dealt with Portuguese history, were given over to him, those of the Royal Armies as well as the accounts and letters of the Viceroys which were comprehensive, as they dealt with everything which belonged to their rule.

He has given us graphic descriptions of personages like Ibrahim Adil Shah and his minister, Asad Khan, and he speaks of the relations of the Portu- guese with other States in India. Regarding informa- tion about the kings of the Orient and their peoples, he obtained documents to verify all his statements.


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  • He was not content with letters only, but sent for the chronicles of those kingdoms written in their respective languages, as we see in the First Decada, Book IX, Chapter III, in which he relates information about the Malabaris taken from one of their religious books and from their history. He had also with him the chronicles of the Kings of Gujerat, Vijianagar and the Deccan.

    Coutinho was an eye-witness of the siege in A manuscript of the 18th. The part which goes- up to page 80, seems to be by Fernao Nunes, and that from page 80 to page , by Domingo Paes.

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    The first must have been written about Both the Chronicles, of which the originals exist in the National Library of Paris, were sent from Goa prcbably to the celebrated historian, Barros. He lived till the 20th. October, , and was interred in the Hermitage of St. Antonio in Leiria. Diogo do Couto continued the account so ably begun by Joao de Barros. Born in Lisbon in , he received a good classical educa- tion ; but owing to the death of the Infante D.

    Luiz in whose service his father was, and the subsequent death of his father, Couto was constrained to give up his university course and take up arms, like most of the noblemen of that time, for which purpose he went to India at the age of fourteen.

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    There he acquired the personal experiences which Joao de Barros did not have. He discharged his military duties so well that he was recalled to Portugal some ten years later to receive the reward for his services. He then left the Army and returned to Goa where, as a peaceful civilian, he continued his classical studies which had been interrupted in his youth by his military service. Couto was the personal friend of Camoes who con - suited him very often and took his advice with regard to several places in his poem. He once accompanied Camoes on his return to Lisbon in And there were not lacking those who gave him food.

    And 1 could never hear of it in Portugal, in spite of my many enquiries, and it was a notable theft ; and in Portugal this excellent poet died in abject poverty. After the coronation of the King D. Felippe II in. On the 25th. February, , he founded the Archives in Goa, and he was nominated the first Keeper which gave him facilities for writing and becoming acquainted with original documents and original sources.

    The Tenth Decada was written first in order that the work should begin with the day when the King was crowned. These precious volumes were stolen from him by some one who, know- ing their value, wished to reap the benefit of them after his death. January According to Innocencio da Silva, these Decadas were stolen before this date.

    God our Lord permitted me to be led in sucli a way that I again began to compile these two Decadas after the manner of an epilogue in which I have a resume of the most notable and substantial events which happened, and thus I repaired the loss caused by the theft which they made me, as best I could.

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    And when in some future time, these books will appear, infmediately they will be recognised thus by my style as well as by the subject matter. Dos feitos que os Portuguezes ftzeram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente, quando governaram a India, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio e parte de Nuno da Cunha. Decada IV of Asia. Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient, during the governorship of Lopo Vaz dc Sampaio and part of the rule of Nuno da Cunha.

    By Pedro Craesbeck, fol. The first Governor, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, , occupied himself with the various States lying adjacent to the Portuguese territory in India, viz. Cambay, Cochin and Cannanore. He also laid the foundation for the kingdom of Malacca and had several The next Governor, Nuno da Cunha, , followed the programme laid down by his predecessor : he strengthened the Portuguese possessions in India by wars and alliances with the adjacent kingdoms, he consolidated the power of the Portuguese in Malacca, and, on the whole, se- cured a stronger footing for his nation in the East.

    Dos feitos que os Portuguezes iizeratn na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente em quanto governaram a India Nuno da Cunha, D. Garcia de Norenha, D. Estevam da Gama, e Martira Afonso de Sousa. Decada V of Asia. Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient, while Nuno da Cunha, D.

    Garcia de Noronha, D. In Decada V, Part I, thare is a curious bit of information about the voyage which a pilot, Dioga Botelho, made to Portugal in a small ship, causing wonder and admiration amongst the most daring mari- ners of his time. The second part of this Decada is a treatise on the principal religious systems of India, written with such detail, clearness and precision that no writer on India of our time, would disdain to acknowledge the work as his own 1.

    He tells us about ihc books which the theologians used to teach in their schools. He wrote this description being in the place itself and in close contact with Hindu theolo- gians. Depois de comermos, tornavamos os pratos a seu lugar, que eles vinham arrecadar e traziam vasos cheios de agua, que deitavam por cima primeiro que os tocassem ; e depois que nos iamos faziam grandes purifica9oes, lavando- se com muitas cerimonias e embostando as varandas, como se foramos feridos de algum mal contagioso.

    And after when we would go away, they would make great purifications, washing themselves with great ceremonies and plastering the verandahs with cow- dung as though we were suffering from some contagious disease. And they are so fixed in this, that many of them have arrived at the extremity of life, near death , only on account of not touching the food or anything belonging to another person, through the fear of losing caste and be- coming polluted.

    There is no translation of this book into Portu- guese, but the Reverend G. Pope, forty years ago, made a translation of it into English, and, since then, another and better translation has been made by V. It recognises Diogo de Couto as the first historian to identify the legend. Confirmed afterwards in July by M. Laboulayet in by Dr. Liebricht and in by Prof.